Sound insulation is the process of soundproofing an enclosed space. This type of insulating activity is usually employed when there is a need to keep sound from filtering into or out of the space.
There are several basic approaches to reducing sound: increasing the distance between source and receiver, using noise barriers to reflect or absorb the energy of the sound waves, using damping structures such as sound baffles, or using active anti-noise sound generators.
Two distinct soundproofing problems may need to be considered when designing acoustic treatments – to improve the sound within a room and reduce sound leakage to/from adjacent rooms or outdoors. Acoustic quieting, noise mitigation, and noise control can be used to limit unwanted noise. Soundproofing can suppress unwanted indirect sound waves such as reflections that cause echoes and resonances that cause reverberation. Soundproofing can reduce the transmission of unwanted direct sound waves from the source to an involuntary listener through the use of distance and intervening objects in the sound path.
There are two types of acoustic absorption material:
Porous – These are open cell rubber or melamine which absorbs noise by friction within the cell structure. Open cell foams are a highly effective at absorption of brand range of medium-high frequencies
Resonant – They work by damping by reflecting sound waves and work most effective at low-medium frequencies
How to reduce sound
Distance – Sound waves decrease as they spread out therefore increasing the distance between the receiver and source reduce the intensity of the sound
Damping – Reducing the resonance in the room by absorption or redirection. Sound absorption will decrease the overall sound level while redirection makes unwanted sounds harmless or reducing coherence
Absorption – This is the process of where parts of sounds are converted into very small amount of hear by the absorbing material rather than it being transmitted or reflected
Reflection – This technique is used for an outdoor environment such as embankments, highway or panelling are often used to reflect sound upwards to the sky
Diffusion – If reflection is occurring on a hard surface giving an echo then an acoustic diffuser sound would scatter the sound in all directions
Noise cancellation – Active noise cancellation works by using a microphone is used to pick up the sound that is then analysed by computer then the analyses the sound and creates an opposite sound wave to cancel out the sound through a speaker
Noise barriers – These are constructed of wood, masonry, earth or a combination of three as they act as a blockage to the sound and reflect to disperse or absorb it
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